Nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus 1 in the New World, a wooden ship sailed through the hazy mist and arrived on the rocky coast of what is now Newfoundland, Canada.  The Viking sailors on board were the first Europeans to land in North America. But who were they? Folktales and history books have described them as violent 3 who terrorized Europe from about 800 to 1000 A.D. 4
The Vikings weren’t just burly fighters in horned helmets. 5 their helmets had no horns. Vikings were Norse people from a region in Northern Europe that is now Scandanavia. Contarary to popular belief, the Norse were also peaceful farmers and traders, as well as gifted metalworkers. Their 6 talent, though, was shipbuilding.
The Vikings used their ships to sail in search of goods they couldn’t get at 7 from Europe, the Middle East and possibly Africa. At a time when old trade routes through the Mediterranean were closed, the Vikings kept the trade route between Byzantium and the west open by way of Kiev. There is, however, 8 truth to their savage reputation: they used brute force to steal, especially if they spotted a shiny treasure.
In 871, 9 restless spirit led the Vikings west to a freezing cold island they named Iceland. Evidence shows that about 12,000 Norse settled there. Later, an explorer named Bjarni Herjolfsson was 10 on his way to Greenland and spotted a forested land in the distance. Erik’s son Leif set out to find 11 the first European to reach North America. Ruins suggest his base lasted less than 10 years, but archaeologists believe that Vikings continued to trade with Native American tribes such as the Inuit long after the Norse abandoned their camp: 12
Remnants of Viking culture 13 part of modern life. 14 Its representatives still meet to discuss important issues and settle disputes. 15 every week we all honor the ancient Norse gods Odin, Thor and Freya: Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are named after them!
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If the writer deleted the words wooden, hazy, and rocky from the previous sentence, the paragraph would primarily loseCorrectIncorrect
Given that all of the choices are true, which one most effectively signals the essay’s shift in focus here to the topic of paragraph 2?CorrectIncorrect
The writer wants to indicate to the reader that Bjarni Herjolfsson’s glimpse of North America occurred by chance. Given that goal, which of the following would be most appropriate?CorrectIncorrect
Which of the following would be the LEAST acceptable alternative to the underlined portion?CorrectIncorrect
Given that all of the choices are true, which one would provide the most effective supporting evidence for the preceding statement in this sentence?CorrectIncorrect